Substation

Grounding

 
 

Introduction

In electrical engineering, the Earth serves as a (reasonably) constant potential reference against which other potentials can be measured, earth or ground may be the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured, or a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.


Another main purpose, in mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent unintentional contact with a dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails may be caused by lightning or line surges. Connections to ground limit the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or when repairing electronic devices. In some communication and power transmission circuits, the earth itself can be used as one conductor of the circuit, saving the cost of installing a separate return conductor.


Exothermic welding, also known as exothermic bonding, is a very effective technique welding process for joining two electrical conductors, that employs superheated copper alloy to permanently join the conductors. The process employs an exothermic reaction of a copper thermite composition to heat the copper, and requires no external source of heat or current. The weld formed has higher mechanical strength, excellent corrosion resistance, highly stable when subject to repeated short-circuit pulses, and does not suffer from increased electrical resistance over the lifetime of the installation. Our products cover a one-time welding mold or reusable efficient graphite mold and usually apply for welding copper conductors but is suitable for welding a wide range of metals, including stainless steel, cast iron, common steel, brass, bronze, etc.


For maintenance up to 115 kV power system purposes, temporary grounding devices used for personnel safety to short and ground power circuits shall have a minimum withstand rating equal to the maximum short-circuit and ground-fault current available at the intended point of connection to the system as determined by the cognizant personnel. It is proved to prevent hot-line crew from induced voltage, fault-current, lightning strikes, switching-equipment malfunction, accident-initiated contact occurrences.


In case the earth or soil condition is rather poor grounding condition, a robust, cementations and carbonaceous material designed for the demanding electrical and ecological environments of modern electrical and lightning protection. Available in a number of variants formulated for specific applications, high performance, reliability and longevity of traditional grounding, while reducing the overall operational and maintenance costs of the infrastructure and systems it protects.


Features

The equipment shall have successfully passed all the type tests or design tests in accordance with the Thai Industry Standards and the following international standards:

  • IEEE Publication 837-1989: Qualifying Permanent Connections Used in Substation Grounding
  • IEEE Publication 81-1983: Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System Part 1: Normal Measurements
  • IEEE Publication 142: Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
  • ANSI/NFPA Publication 70: National Electrical Code
  • UL Publication 467: Grounding and bonding equipment.

All the products shall be completely passed the routine test before delivery to the local and oversea customers.

Type

  • Conductive Cement (Cathodic Protection Advanced Extended Life Anodes, Conducrete, EnvirAnodeTM CP Systems)
  • Exothermic Welding System (thermOweld ®-Accessories, thermOweld ®-ONE TIME, thermOweld ®-Thermomold,
  • thermOweld ®-Welding Powder

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The equipment shall have successfully passed all the type tests or design tests in accordance with the Thai Industry Standards and the following international standards:

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